The module aims to provide deep and systematic knowledge of concepts and principles in international commercial law, with specific emphasis on the law of obligations and sales; develop skills of analysis, application and evaluation of the concepts and contexts of international commercial law; develop a critical understanding of the legal rules affecting the international sale of goods contract; develop high level research skills in International Commercial Law and its related fields; promote awareness of the underpinning socio-economic and political contexts within which International Commercial Law operates
The module aims to provide deep and systematic knowledge of concepts and principles in the specific area of legal or socio-legal study chosen by the individual student; develop powers of analysis, synthesis, application and evaluation within the framework of the topic chosen; develop advanced research skills; promote awareness of the range of specialist resources available for study of the chosen area.
The module aims to enable students to demonstrate the ability to identify, describe, and analyse the different forms of international commercial arbitration in the private international commercial domains, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of international commercial arbitration with other tribunals and alternative means of resolving commercial disputes; the ability to describe and evaluate the cultural, commercial, professional and other influences on the choice of and conduct of international commercial arbitration and international commercial arbitrators; the capacity to describe and explain the nature of, and the necessity for, arbitral institutions, and analyse the application and effectiveness of institutional arbitration rules, terms and procedures
The module aims to enable students to describe and assess the elements of international law which are relevant to international taxation; demonstrate an understanding of the roles of international bodies engaged in the development of binding and persuasive rules applied in cross-border taxation; describe and evaluate the nature of direct tax in international and national laws, and the process of direct taxation; analyse and describe the significance of tax bases in cross-border taxation, and the principal elements of national tax systems in relation to profits taxation laws; show evidence of knowledge, and ability to provide critical comment on cross-border transactions and the tax implications of those transactions; demonstrate an understanding of the causes of double taxation of profits, and steps taken to escape from, and relieve juridical double taxation.
The module aims to enable students to demonstrate an awareness of the most commonly used international trade terms and the obligations of the parties to an international sale contract; demonstrate knowledge of the law to be applied to international sale contracts and the rights and remedies of the seller and buyer; analyse the role of the documents in international sale; examine critically the move towards the harmonisation of international trade law; analyse the implications of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 with reference to international sales.
The module aims to enable students to examine critically the legal and commercial framework for electronic commerce; examine key aspects of the law of contract in the context of electronic commerce; study relevant English and EU legal provisions on aspects of electronic commerce, including online data transmission, online marketing, electronic payments, computer misuse, data handling etc.; facilitate students’ learning of how current law could be applied to resolve difficulties thrown up by electronic commerce and IT; evaluate areas of reform and change in the legal response to electronic commerce.
The module aims to enable students to explain and assess the nature and functions of incorporated entities, and the requirements for, and the consequences of, incorporation; analyse and describe the structures, internal organisation and management of multinational incorporated entities; demonstrate an understanding of the external relations of multinational incorporated entities in home and host states and the consequences of such relationships, including human rights issues; provide evidence of, and critical comment on, the ownership structures of multinational incorporated entities and the means by which such entities are controlled internally; describe and evaluate the business operations of multinational incorporated entities and show an understanding of the risk profiles of such entities and of directors, employees and shareholders.
The module aims to provide students an outline understanding of the difference, and the relevance of the difference, between substantive law and procedural law; a practical understanding of the English and EU substantive private international law of insolvency and bankruptcy; the ability to explain and assess the English and EU private international law rules relating to identification and application of the substantive governing law of property and transactions in immovable and movable property; the competency to explain the role of the law of obligations arising in English private international law, and the issues surrounding capacity.
The module aims to enable students to demonstrate the ability to identify, describe, and analyse the nature and origins of investment disputes; the capacity to identify and assess investment contracts and treaties; a systematic and critical understanding of the role, functions and status of international investment institutions; a critical understanding of the relationship between dispute resolution clauses in bilateral investment treaties and institutional rules; the capacity to describe and explain the nature of property and its valuation.
The module aims to enable students to be able to critically analyse legal issues in international economic relations; demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the legal principles and core substantive rules of international economic law; independently research legal problems in international economic law; defend orally and in writing legal arguments on topics of international economic law in a structured, coherent and logical manner; identify and understand the economic and legal rationale for liberalisation of trade in the framework of the World Trade Organisation; understand the functioning of the World Trade Organisation and its dispute settlement machinery; understand and elaborate on the rules set forth in the GATT, the GATS and the TRIPS agreements as well as their practical relevance; demonstrate a critical awareness of current developments international economic law; understand position of regional economic integration in the world trading system.
The module aims to enable students to determine and evaluate the major aspects and trends in international project finance and project finance law, including securitization, financial innovation, corporate governance law and socially responsible investment; critically assess the major legal risk factors influencing the sourcing of project finance, the credit process, placement, syndication, risk management strategies, infrastructural issues and regulatory compliance of project finance decisions; explain and evaluate the legal risks of international project transactions across a broad range of standard and complex projects; understand how to critically assess and construct a variety of legal instruments given government-client instructions, market requirements, market standards and market regulations.